Sunday, April 24, 2011

Guidelines for Writing - Types of Composition

When you write a composition, you need to understand the type of witting required. Your piece of writing can be in the form of an informal letter, a report or an article for a teenage magazine. The following article is contributed by two outstanding teachers - O. Kurysh and O. Karpenko.

LETTERS are written to a person (e.g. your pen friend, a newspaper editor, etc) or a group pf people (e.g. the local basketball ciub, the hotel administration, etc) for a specific reason (e.g. to give advice, to make a complaint, to thank for the invitation, etc).

LETTERS include:
♦ Informal letters to people you know well, written in a personal chatty style.
♦ Formal letters to managers/officials, etc, written in a polite formal style.
♦ Semi-formal letters to people you do not know well or people you know but you want to sound polite and respectful, e.g. your teacher, your pen friend's parents, etc, written in a polite and respectful style.
♦ Letters to the Editor, which present the writer's personal opinion on a specific problem or the writer's suggestions on a specific problem.

ARTICLES are found in magazines and newspapers. They include descriptions of people, places, buildings, objects, festivals, ceremonies, etc.

NARRATIVES (STORIES) are about real or imaginary events, which happened in the past. They can be written in the first person (first-person narratives) when the writer is the main character of the story or in the third person (third-person narratives) when the writer is describing events which happened to another person or group of people.

REPORTS are formal pieces of writing and have a specific format and features. They include:

♦ News reports about current/recent events (e.g. accidents, natural disasters, etc) written in impersonal style. News reports present facts objectively and unemotionally.
♦ Assessment reports discussing the suitability of a person, place, plan, etc for a particular purpose, job, etc.
♦ Proposals reports discussing suggestions or decisions about future actions.
♦ Survey reports, which are based on research.

REVIEWS are formal pieces of witting discussing a film, play, TV program, book, restaurant/cafe, etc and recommending it or not to the reader.

ESSAYS are a group of compositions describing various opinions, concerning specific topics, discussing different problems and their causes. They include:

♦ Discursive Essays about arguments concerning particular subjects.
♦ "For and Against" Essays, which present the pros and cons on a specific topic.
♦ Opinion Essays, which present the writer's personal opinion on a specific topic.
♦ Providing Solutions to Problems Essays, which discuss a problem and its causes, making suggestions and mentioning the expected results and consequences.

Besides, there are some other kinds of essays, which include such titles as, cause/effect essays, descriptive essays, compare/contrast essays, critical, definition and process essays, etc.

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