Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Essay Example - Relaxation


Your friend looks very tired, and you know he could use some rest. Convince him to take it easy.


Oh, dear! You look so worn-out and exhausted! Maybe, you are fed up with your work or schooling, aren't you? There is too much work to do and you are unable to solve the problems of the whole world. You must stop overdoing it (work too hard) - you will make yourself ill! You should find the ways to brighten your life.
It seems to me that it is just the matter of relaxation. So, try to be outdoors as much as possible because nothing could be better than a good walk. As for me, you should enjoy every minute outside in winter sunshine or go somewhere to sunny destinations.

Then, I would like you to fight off your tiredness with good food. Vitamin C, by the way, is a great agent against disease and stress. I would suggest the vegetables, such as green and yellow beans, soybeans, cauliflower, and cabbage, to you. All of them contain a lot of vitamin А, В and C. Besides, foods such as breakfast cereal, pasta or potatoes are rich in carbohydrates, which can help you to lift your spirits.

I know that Americans worry about relaxing. They take classes to learn how to relax. They read books that tell them how "to take easy". Relaxing is a multi-dollar industry in the USA. So, why not master this skill and do it on your own without paying much money? The easiest way to relax is to play any kind of sports you like. People who play a lot of sports often do better in exams and cope with their work people of the same intellectual level, who do not take regular exercise.
Then, if you are experiencing fatigue and mental cloudiness, you should analyze your moods. If you feel down, stop and work out where your negative thoughts are coming from. Gradually, you should be able to learn to control your thoughts and moods more beneficially.

Try to divide your time between work and leisure equally. Here, I would like to mention one well-known English proverb "All work and no play make Jack a dull boy". It is fair because only hard work without any rest can do a lot of harm to your health. It may cause serious illnesses and spoil your eyesight as well. Another thing to remember is that people are not machines. They should have a break. That is why, don't be so busy and strained, enjoy your life and keep smiling.

Sunday, October 9, 2011

Perfect Essay Example - School Transfer

I would like to show you a great example of an essay for high school students.

Task: You are studying at a very prestigious school. Your best friend would like to transfer to your school. Advise him/her on what to do to be accepted.


I am studying at a very prestigious school now. Therefore, I'd like to tell you some words about it. There are many advantages to choosing our school. You will be offered more than just an English language package. It places great importance on out-of-classroom activities and offers students a varied programme of recreational and cultural activities. This will enable you to put your English into practice and extend your vocabulary while enjoying yourself at the same time. Our school has the well-being of its students at heart and that is why you can turn for advice and help to any of our highly qualified teachers. All of them are remarkable specialists in their fields of knowledge and, in addition, they are just wonderful people to speak to and you may freely open your mind to them.

Moreover, if our school interests you, you together with your parents may come to our principal directly. She will be happy to give you more detailed information about school and its extra courses to help you make your choice. To get accepted to our school depends on how old you are, your reasons for learning English and basic subjects, how much time you have and how you learn best because our school accepts only those who are fond of learning and need advanced studies in English, computer skills and economics.

The school fee is also important because our school is not a charitable organization. You must pay for studying here. Moreover, the fee is rather high. Therefore, you should think first if you would be able to pay for your studies at our school. You see that an unwritten rule in many countries says it is not so important what you know but school you have finished or university you have graduated. A diploma from a renowned university often guarantees success in life and a high position in society. To the best of my knowledge, it concerns our school too.

In addition, the level of education is also so high that you must possess profound knowledge in various subjects. It is commonly known that the students who have finished our school are much more likely to pass the entrance exams to famous universities than those who have not studied in our school. It is not surprising that 98 per-cent of our school-leavers enter prestigious educational establishments to get higher education there and they do have a very high pass rate. A school-leaving certificate given by our school is proof of the level you have achieved and can be very useful for you in future.

So, try to be admitted to our exclusive school and you will not be sorry for being one of those who managed to get to this school for the elite and the privileged. For us, here, in our school, the privileged are the people who enjoy studying and getting knowledge. Your intellect makes you an elitist. Believe in yourself and join us right now.

Monday, July 25, 2011

Imitative words

Imitative words are words which very sounds suggest their meaning. According to many linguistic theories, the first words spoken by man were imitations of sounds.

Our language today contains a great many imitative words, such as buzz, crackle, splash, wail. The use of imitative words is onomatopoeia, the words are onomatopoeic.

When you wish to use imitative words remember, that in general, verbs beginning with fl carry the idea of lightness and quickness of motion, as in float, flash, flame, flicker, flee, flutter, flow, fly, flit, flip.

Some words ending in -ash suggest a loud confused noise, as in crash, smash, splash, dash. The syllable -ang appears in many words suggestive of brazen resonance, as in clang, bang, rang, jangle.

The syllables -ink and -ing suggest cold brittleness, as in tinkle, clink, twinkle, jingle, tingle. О sound in suggestive of slowness, solemnity and often melancholy, as in toll, roll, flow, blow, old.


Argumentation - is any exchange of ideas designed to prove the truth or falsity of a definite statement, to influence either the behaviour or belief of an individual or a group. A great deal of our daily speech takes the form of an informal argument.

Every complete argument consists of 3 distinct parts: the introduction, the body, the conclusion.

The introduction is a statement of the proposition to be argued. The statement must be in the beginning of the discussion. It also must be an assertion. We cannot argue the subject "Immigration", for example; we must set up a statement with which someone may reasonably differ, as, perhaps, "Restricted immigration is a menace to the welfare of the United States."

The body of the argument is the proceeding when every participant of the argument gives the reasons for the opinion he holds. There are 6 kinds of proof which could be used to support one's own opinion:

1. General illustrations.
2. Specific illustrations.
3. Personal testimony.
4. Testimony of other witnesses.
5. Written evidence.
6. Circumstantial evidence.

The conclusion of the argument is what may be justly inferred from the facts presented, when all the proof has been assembled and shown to be trustworthy.

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Ways to achieve the essential clearness of the exposition

Exposition is an explanation of a theory, plan. Half of our speech is exposition, though we may not be aware of that fact. It plays an important part in our everyday relationships. The office equipment salesman explains to his prospective buyer the superiority of steel desks over those made of wood; the physician explains to his patient the dangers of infection; the mother explains to her child what makes the day and night.

Exposition has as its object making clear a general term or principle. In this it differs from description and narration, both of which describe specific instances of things. If you embody description and narration in your explanation, you must subordinate them.

There are few simple rules that everyone can follow to achieve the essential clearness of the exposition:

1) know your subject matter thoroughly;
2) present your statements in logical order; (start with the simple and proceed to the complex);
3) be as brief as is consistent with an adequate explanation;
4) suit your language to your audience;
5) illustrate general principles by concrete examples; (introduce comparison, contrast, description, narration);
6) use precise terms;
7) make exact statements.

Perhaps, the most familiar kind of formal exposition is the newspaper or magazine editorial, because they use some event of immediate interest as an example of a general truth.
Other forms of exposition are the essay, the monograph and the treatise (textbooks and other long didactic explanations).

Narration and its kinds


In the early dawn of civilization there was story-telling - a form of entertainment and information, that exists even today. Bards were minstrels, who arranged the information on the historic events of the time in simple song and story. Due to them the information was handed down from generation to generation long before any form of writing was invented. The bards were, perhaps, the first to invent memory systems. Thus the art of narration developed. Narration is a record (account) of either real or imaginary events. Narratives may consist of a single sentence as well as run into many volumes.

Kinds of narration

The simplest classification divides narratives into two major groups - simple and complex. Simple narratives include personal experiences, biography and history. We may relate incidents of which we know personally, we may repeat what has been told to us, or we may tell about something we have read.

Simple narratives are grouped according to the manner of presentation into:

1) a simple catalogue of incidents, such as those included in diaries, ships' logs, minutes of meetings, etc.;
2) reports that announce the point in the opening, as given in the newspaper articles, some magazine articles, and some speeches:
3) interesting and natural stories.
The so-called complex narratives usually take the form of short stories or novels. This form must have a plot.
Both simple and complex narratives may be authentic or imaginary. The elements of narration

There are three elements in a narrative: the characters about whom the story is told; the plot -
the action of the story; the background or setting - the place and time at which the story is set.

Ways of arrangement of incidents:
1) traditional opening by the four w's - that is an account of who the characters were, where the action took place, when it took place, and why the incident is being related.
2) adhering to a strict chronological order in which the events happened;
3) beginning with an interesting incident in the middle of the tail and later going back and gathering up the introductory incidents.

The impression of rapid action is secured by:
1) omitting all but the essential facts;
2) using short crisp sentences;
3) using many short words that denote quick motion

When the desired effect is one of slow movement the technique is the reverse of that just outlined: 
1) use many details;
2) use longer sentences;
3) use longer words, many suggestive of slow motion.

Thursday, June 23, 2011

Style in Writing - Basic Guide to Writing

FORMAL STYLE is characterized by:

1.) formal expressions, advanced vocabulary, longer sentences
E.g. Taking everything into consideration, it can be said that the facilities offered are of poor quality.
2.) formal linking words and devices (i.e. Nevertheless, Consequently, However, In addition, etc)
E.g. Cell phones are extremely useful for people who travel frequently. However, they can be dangerous.
3.) no use of short forms (i.e. I'm, he's been, there's ...)
E.g. I would be grateful if... (Instead of: I'd be grateful if...)
4.) impersonal tone (i.e. use of the passive, no description of feelings)
E.g. Late this evening, 20-year-old Tom McKinley was pulled to safety after being trapped under debris for more than twenty hours.
5.) factual presentation of the information
E.g. The City Hall, constructed in the late 1800s, was seriously damaged by fire in 1907.

INFORMAL STYLE is characterized by:

1.) everyday/colloquial expressions, vocabulary and idioms E.g. I thought I'd drop you a line..Thanks a million..., etc 2.) frequent use of short forms
E.g. I won 4 be able to come to your party as I'll be away on a business trip.
3.) informal phrasal verbs E.g. Nelly takes after her father. She's
4.) simple linking words and phrases (i.e. but, so, and, because, etc)
E.g. It rains a lot here, so you'd better take an umbrella with you.
5.) shorter sentences
E.g. Thanks a lot for the invitation. I'd love to come.
6.) personal tone (the use of first person) (I/We)
E.g. We've got great news. Г ve found a new job.
7.) descriptive tone (use of adjectives/adverbs for vivid description)
E.g. It was a bitterly cold winter evening.

SEMI-FORMAL STYLE is characterized by:

1.) the use of less colloquial language E.g. Thank you very much for your letter. {Instead of: Thanks a million for your letter.)
2.) less frequent use of short forms, phrasal verbs and idioms E.g. I am writing to request information about... (Instead of: I thought I'd drop you a line to ask about...)
3.) a polite, respectful tone E.g. I was wondering if you had ... {Instead of: Do you have...)

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Understanding Rubrics - Guide to Writing

To plan your composition your need to understand the rubrics (the main composition instructions). Read the rubric carefully and underline the key words/phrases, which will help you decide what you will write about.

 Keywords/phrases indicate:

♦ the imaginary situation you will write about (e.g. you are a newspaper reporter ... to write about a gangster who escaped from the local jail last night...) this can also suggest who you are (e.g. a reporter), what has happened (e.g. a gangster escaped), etc.
♦ the imaginary reader who is going to read your piece of writing (e.g. the manager of the hotel you work for ahs asked you to write...). This will help you decide on the writing style{the appropriate style of language - formal/informal, etc) you should use,
♦ the writing style you should use depends on the type of composition you are writing, the situation and the intended reader. Therefore, you should not use the same style of writing for every composition. The two main types of writing style are formal and informal. However, not all styles of writing fall under these categories.

For example, in a letter to somebody, you do not know very well or in an article for a student's magazine, the style used is neither formal nor informal but a blend of the two, known as semi-formal.
♦ the type of writing (e.g. a letter, a review describing a film you saw, etc)
♦ the specific topics you should include in your answer (e.g. describe the city/place and comment on its good and bad points).

Study the example below.
1. The TV Company you are working for needs a report about young people's television watching habits. Write your report for the company.
1-situation 2 - render 3 - type of writing 4 -specific topics

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Guidelines for Writing - Types of Composition

When you write a composition, you need to understand the type of witting required. Your piece of writing can be in the form of an informal letter, a report or an article for a teenage magazine. The following article is contributed by two outstanding teachers - O. Kurysh and O. Karpenko.

LETTERS are written to a person (e.g. your pen friend, a newspaper editor, etc) or a group pf people (e.g. the local basketball ciub, the hotel administration, etc) for a specific reason (e.g. to give advice, to make a complaint, to thank for the invitation, etc).

LETTERS include:
♦ Informal letters to people you know well, written in a personal chatty style.
♦ Formal letters to managers/officials, etc, written in a polite formal style.
♦ Semi-formal letters to people you do not know well or people you know but you want to sound polite and respectful, e.g. your teacher, your pen friend's parents, etc, written in a polite and respectful style.
♦ Letters to the Editor, which present the writer's personal opinion on a specific problem or the writer's suggestions on a specific problem.

ARTICLES are found in magazines and newspapers. They include descriptions of people, places, buildings, objects, festivals, ceremonies, etc.

NARRATIVES (STORIES) are about real or imaginary events, which happened in the past. They can be written in the first person (first-person narratives) when the writer is the main character of the story or in the third person (third-person narratives) when the writer is describing events which happened to another person or group of people.

REPORTS are formal pieces of writing and have a specific format and features. They include:

♦ News reports about current/recent events (e.g. accidents, natural disasters, etc) written in impersonal style. News reports present facts objectively and unemotionally.
♦ Assessment reports discussing the suitability of a person, place, plan, etc for a particular purpose, job, etc.
♦ Proposals reports discussing suggestions or decisions about future actions.
♦ Survey reports, which are based on research.

REVIEWS are formal pieces of witting discussing a film, play, TV program, book, restaurant/cafe, etc and recommending it or not to the reader.

ESSAYS are a group of compositions describing various opinions, concerning specific topics, discussing different problems and their causes. They include:

♦ Discursive Essays about arguments concerning particular subjects.
♦ "For and Against" Essays, which present the pros and cons on a specific topic.
♦ Opinion Essays, which present the writer's personal opinion on a specific topic.
♦ Providing Solutions to Problems Essays, which discuss a problem and its causes, making suggestions and mentioning the expected results and consequences.

Besides, there are some other kinds of essays, which include such titles as, cause/effect essays, descriptive essays, compare/contrast essays, critical, definition and process essays, etc.

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